Numerous investigations have been made on plant phenolic compounds and cancer prevention in recent decades. Manuka honey (MH) represents a good source of phenolic compounds such as luteolin, kaemp- ferol, quercetin, gallic acid and syringic acid. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of MH on human colon cancer HCT-116 and LoVo cells. Both cells were exposed to different con- centrations of MH (0–20 mg mL−1 for HCT-116 cells and 0–50 mg mL−1 for LoVo cells) for 48 h to measure apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory gene and protein expression. MH exhibited profound inhibitory effects on cellular growth by reducing the proliferation ability, inducing apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MH treatment in non-malignant cells did not exert any significant toxicity at similar concentrations. The apop- tosis event was associated with the increasing expression of p53, cleaved-PARP and caspase-3 and with the activation of both intrinsic (caspase-9) and extrinsic (caspase-8) apoptotic pathways. MH induced cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT-116 cells, and simultaneously, in LoVo cells, it occurred in the G2/M phase through the modulation of cell cycle regulator genes (cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, CDK4, p21, p27 and Rb). The expression of p-Akt was suppressed while the expression of p-p38MAPK, p-Erk1/2 and endoplasmic stress markers (ATF6 and XBP1) was increased for apoptosis induction. Overall, these findings indicate that MH could be a promising preventive or curative food therapy for colon cancer
The inhibitory effect of Mānuka honey on human colon cancer – Part 2
Despite its high content of phenolic compounds, the chemopreventive activity of Manuka honey (MH) is still elusive. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of MH on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, cellular metabolism and the metastatic ability in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, paying particular attention to the molecular mechanisms involved. We observed a strong induction of oxidative stress after MH treatment since it augmented the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased the damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Furthermore, MH suppressed the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme expression (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1) and the activity of SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Cell metabolisms were markedly dis- rupted after MH treatment. It decreased maximal oxygen consumption and spare respiratory capacity, which could reduce the mitochondrial function that is correlated with cell survival potential. Simultaneously, MH decreased the extracellular acidification rate (glycolysis) of HCT-116 and LoVo cells. Furthermore, MH suppressed the p-AMPK/AMPK, PGC1α and SIRT1 activation, involved in the survival of HCT-116 and LoVo cells under metabolic stress conditions. Dose-dependently, MH reduced the migration and invasion (MMP-2 and MMP-9) ability, and concurrently regulated EMT-related markers (E cadherin, N cadherin, and β-catenin) in both cell types. The above findings indicate that MH induces HCT-116 and LoVo cell death partly by enhancing oxidative stress, as well as by regulating the energy metabolism in both aerobic and anaerobic pathways and suppressing the metastatic ability.